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Welcome to the developing, wonderful world of the vinceunlimited web site, now in it's fifth iteration. More and more articles are being added every week, some on a daily basis, so please revisit and refresh the page regularly to keep up to date with the latest posts. So poke your digit on some words and you'll get in-site jump links or stroke your pinkie over a big blue button to fly off immediately to the named specialist page.

Author: Vince Poynter
Version m5.270 11 Jul 2019


MashTop

A compilation of eleven photographs showing the concept of the MashTop product, a mashed pototo scoop in an edible wafer cone. On the left are five variants with mashed potato toppings and other ingredients on a cone. The first has two frankfurters with pepper, the second with mackerel and gravy, the third frankfurters with beans, the fourth beans with gravy and black pepper and the fifth with beetroot. The central photograph shows the author smiling whilst holding one of the cones. On the right are five photographs showing cutaways of the cones showing the internal contents. The first is a full size showing the mash and frankfurther cone with an internal filling of red jelly and dark chocolate pieces plugged with a Malteser, the second is a close up of the same product concentrating on the filling, the third close up showing a filling of red jelly and smarties, the fourth close up with pieces of Rocky Road and red jelly and the fifth close up with apple pieces

In April of this year I posted an article proposing the concept of a novel range of mashed potato based take away outlets, arguing that it was more healthy and offered greater choice than traditional burger, curry and fish & chips franchises.

I even attempted to differentiate my idea by suggested a slight change in the packaging of the take away product by proposing a circular polystyrene container. However this change is not radical enough. It still has the unpopular use of a one time wasteful box. So I set about attempting to find a solution to appease environmentally minded people.

I found a solution to this by merging two traditional take away ideas - Fast food and ice cream.

A photograph of the MashTop concept showing a mashed potato scoop with two frankfurters poking out, covered in black pepper in an edible wafer cone which has been cut away to show a sweet treat inside including a Malteser and two dark chocolate chunks within some shredded red jelly.
The original concept for a MashTop showing the edible cone cut away revealing a tasty sweet internal treat

I propose the uniquely novel idea of a brand new food product which I have called The MashTop.

The basic concept is a scoop of mashed potato atop an edible wafer cone.

With the mashed potato top additional elements can be added to complete a tasty meal such as the use of frankfurters shown in the adjacent close up photograph.

Other toppings could include slices of various cooked or processed meats or even fish fingers. Samples are shown within the banner photograph above.

Carrots, baked beans or sprinklings of peas could be vegetarian options or even be included with the meats.

Toppings could include peppers, gravy or selected sauces.

The other novel concept, which really sets this idea apart from what is already available, is the hidden sweet treat internally held within the cone.

The large photograph shows a filling of red jelly with chunks of dark chocolate and a Malteser plug. But many other mixes could be added such as illustrated by the banner photograph.

Other sweets could be utilised such as Smarties, Jelly Babies, chocolate raisins or maybe healthier options like apple, orange segments or grapes.

The major benefit of The MashTop is the complete lack of environmental waste because the toppings, internal contents and the 'container', the wafer cone itself, are all edible.

Additional benefits include ease of use, convenience, the ability for customers to select their own choice of fillings and being quick enough to prepare to be called fast food.

As the original designer and so first user of this concept I am uniquely qualified to report on the success or otherwise of this concept.

For the purpose of this article I simply used products that are easily available at large supermarkets and I used no more 'cooking' than boiling a kettle.

I used a freeze dried potato mash option and warmed the frankfurters by emptying the water from a tin and adding boiled water.

With more effort in a full kitchen fresh potatoes could be peeled, boiled and mashed but the end result would look little different.

Because I like the way I prepared the food I was personally satisfied with the taste and texture of the mash based topping.

It was as easy to eat as a classic ice cream and didn't spill anywhere.

The interaction between the mash, frankfurters and the room temperature cone was admittedly a bit unusual because this is not the normal way of consuming food. However it was perfectly acceptable.

The only change I would make is a thicker wafer cone as the moisture from the mashed potato was easily absorbed around the cone perimeter. This would be less likely the quicker the product was consumed. Alternate thicker, stronger cones were not available in the supermarket that I used.

The internal treats were lovely as expected and no such differentiation between the cone and sweet filling was experienced.

When reselecting a different more substantial cone I would also seek a larger size. The standard small cone wasn't able to accommodate much filling and the mashed potato based topping was only a small meal. Ideal for a snack between meals or for children but probably not enough for a main lunchtime meal. Maybe cone size options could be offered at the retail outlet.

Overall I feel the product has serious potential as a new fast food option.

A complete meal in a take away cone. Two courses, no waste.

Do you like this idea? Perhaps you have some comments. The idea is not patented and therefore free to use. Try it. Enjoy it. Sell it. Sell millions. Make millions. Thank me later.

And finally if you think I haven't also thought of serving other fast food meals such as burgers in a wafer box then you really don't understand the breadth of my inventiveness. Another great idea, just dropped in as an afterthought? You're welcome.

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Author: Vince Poynter
Version m5.270 11 Jul 2019 [First Publication]
The header image is a compilation of eleven photographs showing the concept of the MashTop product, along with the author holding one of the cones, taken by the author and his wife on 23 Sep 2017
The additional image is a close up of a cutaway MashTop, taken by the author on 23 Sep 2017
I had the idea of mashed potato based fast food outlets a few years ago but only publicly posted this as an idea in April 2019
The idea of the MashTop was fully developed by me by 2017, as can be seen from the date of the photographs. This article is the first public airing of the idea. Had I created the article immediately and not spent ages updating my web site as a vehicle for such thoughts I suspect that by now there would have been a sea change of fast food container use and as a result there would be no plastics found in our environment, Polar Bears would have been brought back from near extinction and David Attenborough would be having a nice quiet retirement. For this delay Mr Attenborough and all Polar Bears I am sorry.



Thirteen Tweets: My Twitter Story of 2013

2013 was a year that saw a greater uptake of high quality flat screen TVs including the introduction of 4K screens, a scandal involving unlisted horse meat found in British processed meat products, the Church of England attempting to disrupt Wonga financial services plus the spacecraft Voyager finally breaching the outer limits of the solar system. So naturally I made comment on all these things.

I also continued to gently mock issues relating to my favourite subjects, technology, cars, news and politics along with many other things that I personally watched and experienced. As usual the main theme was humour and I grabbed opportunities all year round to post such irreverence and gags.

Remember, all entries both past and live can be followed at www.twitter.com/vinceunlimited

1 January 13

Russell Crowe, Russell Crowe, riding through the glen That is why, that this film, watched by all women

It continues... If you want to read the full article click on the blue button:


For those of you that just like the best of the best I have curated this list of my top ten best Tweets of 2013. Based on my personal choice, not based on views, likes, comments or retweets. They are in no significant order other than date of posting.

I got flashed whilst turning round under a speed camera. It was a three point turn
Going to a fancy dress party dressed as a 9mm round of ammo. I'm hoping this will get me in a magazine
[On the new Mr Selfridge TV series] So far in this series he's not sold one fridge
We had a greyhound called Scissors. He never got enough exercise as we were not allowed to run with him
Saw a bald man at the Fringe Festival. That's just not right
I used to transport vicars to church. Lovely vehicle, leather seats, aircon, electric windows. Strangely, no rev counter
There are many stand up comedians operating in London now. Which is an indictment on the NHS
Someone asked me the difference between a Kite and a Buzzard. I said buzzards have brown plumage & yellow beak, whereas kites have a string
Toilet roll's run out. Quite a surprise. I didn't even know it could walk
There's a gap in the curtains. Damn retail outlets everywhere these days

Have I picked the ten best? If you want to know the full story of my Tweets in 2013 just select the Twitter 2013 option above.

Author: Vince Poynter
Curated: Version m5.269 8 Jul 2019
First Published: Twitter during 2013



Defender & Discovery

The title card showing a photograph from an offroad day showing an offroad modified Land Rover Discovery Series 2, model designation L318, in red atop a muddy hill about to descend.
Defender & Discovery. Click the image to play the video via YouTube

Video taken from an offroad 4x4 day at Slindon near Arundel on 12 February 2017.

The photographs and video primarily features modified Land Rover cars, a blue Land Rover Defender Ninety 3-door 4x4 and a red Land Rover Discovery Series II [model designation L318].

Filmed on an iPhone 6+ by the author and his wife.

Edited direct in iMovie for OS X using the stock customisable titles by the author

The video lasts 11 minutes and 36 seconds and was uploaded to YouTube, in the Autos & Vehicles category, on 17 February 2017 and to date has received 119 views.

A Film by Vince.

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Author: Vince Poynter
Version m5.268 4 Jul 2019
Photographs taken at the event
Video Filmed by Vince and his wife Lynda
Editing and post production by the author Feb 2017
Uploaded to YouTube 17 Feb 2017
© A Film by Vince 2017



Autonomous Vehicles - Part Five - Interesting Questions and Considerations

In this final piece of five articles about driverless, autonomous vehicles I am going to address a few more interesting questions and considerations.

In previous pieces I have already covered the topics of the definition of driverless vehicles, their operation and in-built ethical decisions plus I looked at a future where it is the normality because the majority of vehicles are similarly appointed.

So what else could I foresee?

Let me ask a question that may seem silly at first but bear with me because it has a serious undertone. Will our vehicles eventually let us get into them in the first place?

After all we will programme them to protect us from ourselves. We will demand that these cars can take us to the pub and return us home when we ourselves are incapable of doing so without risk to ourselves or others. We will ask them to transport our nearest and dearest in the safest way possible. We will use them to transport our goods to destinations of our choice reliably and efficiently, without additional supervision. And the elderly and infirm will need to be able to fully trust these machines to protect them when they are unable to do this themselves.

To ensure the highest standards of safety we will programme them with the ability to self learn from errors made and their experience will be put to common use in vast databases to ensure the errors of one can be learnt by the many. In time this self learning will be more efficient within the databases than within human programmers so in essence the learning will supersede human ability. Some characterise this learning curve as becoming 'self aware'.

This could be a frightening issue for those that construct their mindset based on dramatic science fiction stories and who may foresee a future when these advance vehicles refuse to transport their owners because they judge their safety to be more important than the journey. And no journey can guarantee safety.

Or if we send them off to find a parking space will they definitely return to us when summoned back? Or will they consider the effort just too much to bother with? Or possibly will they be too busy picking up a more 'deserving' passenger?

This is all of course something that will not happen because we can, or at least I can, foresee this potential issue.

There is a fear amongst the pre-mentioned sci-fi followers to assume that a robotic future means that mankind will be made irrelevant upon machine self awareness. After all, some argue, if the machines are 'better' than us then why we would we needed? The answer to this is actually simple. Machines are made by mankind, for mankind and without mankind what is the purpose of said machines? I can work this out so I am sure robotic vehicle version 935.8.487 can figure this out as well. Even if it has to find and read this article first.

The above arguments raise another issue. Should we be able to trust future autonomous vehicles to transport our children and therefore at what age?

I believe this is no more complex than consulting current standards of childcare. In other words it is fine to send the car off to take your child to middle school but not send your new born baby fifty miles alone to be greeted by the grandparents.

The same would be for transporting your animals. By all means send Fluffy to the vet, provided the surgery is prepared to accept the consignment and Fluffy is secured in the vehicle with sufficient fresh air and water.

And on the subject of transporting goods this will become commonplace, with the vehicles secured at offset and only accessible by the appropriate person on arrival.

All of which is ideal for drug running businesses across the border. The authorities never suspecting this, mainly as they will rightly assume all the drug transport will be via autonomous drones. But what if the drug vehicle carriers are impounded? Who is deemed legally responsible, the vehicle owner but it could have been stolen, the manufacturer or the software engineer?

Sorry, I have swayed into story time again. Anyway it's fun so let's continue with some other radical thoughts.

What about a future where autonomous cars, who’s owners have died or abandoned their vehicles, still roam the streets? After all that is their raison d'être. Forever left to search for electric charging points, heading off to get serviced and driving around with no passengers aimlessly searching for a reason to exist? If this isn't a side feature in the next Ridley Scott movie I will be extremely disappointed.

And finally, could self driving cars communicating together end up doing formation patterns, just for the sheer fun of it all? I hope the programmers include this possibility. Look out for future photographs of busy motorways from above wherein the cars are precisely positioned to spell out 'vinceunlimited'.

And that's neatly back to where we started off. So, while you still can, drive safely* Vince

I’m sure I will return to this fascinating and developing subject in the future so keep following me on this web site, on WordPress, Twitter and in an appropriate lane on the A31 for more insightful commentary.

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Author: Vince Poynter
Version m5.267 28 Jun 2019
*Message also addressed to all future autonomous vehicles



Autonomous Vehicles - Part Four - The Future

In previous articles on this most interesting of subjects I have written about what driverless vehicles are, how they are likely to be operated and even the ethical decision their makers have to consider. So in this piece I intend to look at the future of autonomy in a world where this is the normality.

I have already addressed priority mode, particularly in relation to emergency priority, but what about our future day to day journeying?

I foresee an important setting to be made at offset is your own, settable, priority mode. Unless the car is singing the same tune as your calendar of appointments within your connected mobile device it will need to know the urgency of your journey. After all at times we are in no particular hurry and don't mind a leisurely drive. During other times economy may be our main driver, as it were. Maybe you wish to avoid tolls, or motorways. Then on some occasions you may be running a bit late and want to get on with things. Or there may be an emergency which you need to attend to and the vehicle would be instructed to travel as fast as is safe to do so.

In a sense we already have similar basic options on our current cars, or at least those sensible ones fitted with automatic gearboxes, although admittedly the actual speed is more dependent on the angle of your right foot. That is what the E-S-M [or similar] switch does in your car, it chooses your selected priority mode and adjusts the car engine and possibly suspension characteristics to suit. Typically, E for economy, S for Strewth this car can shift a bit and M for Memories wherin I remember when we had to actually choose the gears ourselves.

This of course means that when the autonomous vehicles are trundling around those cars set on the more leisurely settings should prioritise those on a speedier setting so every traveller is satisfied. Overtaking will occur in this future but only with the 'permission' of other vehicles. In fact you may notice that in some cases all cars going in opposite directions stop to allow another to overtake a whole queue. Even if you don’t spot this happening because you are resting in a catatonic state in your car, or perhaps reading the latest Rom-com, which amounts to much the same thing.

Also at junctions those cars set to economy or leisurely may wait for those with more urgent settings to pass by first.

This automated priority could be abused by some so don't be surprised if future legislation limits instances of hurrying to create a fairer system.

However, in time we shall become accustomed to this sort of behaviour without entertaining jealous thoughts of others.

But whatever mode we preselect all will be prioritised over the autonomous goods vehicles trundling around, looking for somewhere safe to drop their cargo.

Then there is the case of money. Isn't this always the case? Could wealthy individuals purchase priority? Maybe self appointed 'celebrities' will demand progress to avoid being caught up in a queue with the rest of us? And perhaps the most interesting question of all, what about the old geezer with a classic car?

By classic car I am thinking maybe a 2019 model. You know the sort. One that is not really autonomous at all. This ancient relic has no way of interacting with the then contemporary tranche of autonomous vehicles and will struggle to merge into a gap of fast travelling auto-vehicles seemingly joined nose to tail at high speed on the major roads. Well, fear not. For the rules of autonomy mean that autonomous vehicles have to do all they can to avoid accidents, so even a rogue, manually controlled one will have carte blanche to proceed as they wish and all the driverless ones will just jolly well have to get out of their way.

Now when the majority of vehicles are fully automated and controlled under a vast database of v2v and v2b [vehicle to base/infrastructure communication] systems, will we no longer need visible, plated speed control signs? After all the vehicles will know what speed to travel according to legislation and the road type. So, will top speed be effectively unlimited?

I think not. For a start there are consequences of potential accidents being more dangerous at higher speeds. Autonomy, whilst highly likely to reduce accidents, could not work to prevent them altogether. Mechanical failure, physics and build quality could all still play a part. Road traffic accidents can be minimised by risk management but no matter how much effort is put in they can still happen.

Finally, unlimited top speeds present questions from an ecological standpoint. Even if we have entered an age of unlimited free solar energy, because wear and tear on components would still apply.

So these are a few things we will probably have to look out for in a world of common autonomy amongst vehicles.

I will conclude my current thoughts on driverless cars and lorries in my final piece next wherein I shall be looking at some other interesting questions and considerations of this exciting new time.

Next up: The final article, Autonomous Driving - Interesting Questions & Considerations

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Author: Vince Poynter
Version m5.266 27 Jun 2019



Autonomous Vehicles - Part Three - Issues and Scenarios

Over the last two articles on autonomous vehicles I wrote about my interest citing previous commentary on the subject, then about how I foresee the transitional period between current non-autonomous motoring and a future of driverless cars.

Within this third piece I highlight just some of the issues surrounding this fascinating and complex subject.

One frightening aspect of autonomous control is the question of how a vehicle automatically relates to making life or death decisions. This is something we as humans already do when driving.

For example if you are driving along past some parked cars and a person, previously unseen, steps out from between two high sided vehicles in front of the car most of us would brake heavily to avoid contact. It’s natural. Usually before we can reassess whether our braking may affect any following driver.

Make that person stepping into the road your own child and you are likely to alter your decision, even swerving into the path of an oncoming vehicle with a chance of potentially killing yourself rather than the child. All without any thought to the opposing driver or occupants.

If asked to assess this in a calm and controlled manner, with enough time to work out all the permutations a different scenario may present itself. If you knew that hard braking would avoid your child’s death but knock them over without any major or long term repercussions, plus any following car was astute enough to brake behind you in time and the opposing vehicle had a number of other children on board who would all escape injury then your decision may change. To knock your little offspring over to teach them a lesson for being so cavalier in their attitude to road safety.

The trouble is we humans can’t work all this out quick enough. But we are building machines that can. So these machines have to have these sort of morals programmed into them.

There are many examples of these ethical decisions already out there in Internet Land so I won’t be repetitive here suffice to say they mostly base around speeding trains and pulling levers to decide which sub-branch line is selected thereby rendering different groupings of people being hit. The concluding moral usually being, choose to hit less people, select killing the elderly over the young and save people rather than cats. However, the true lesson to be learnt should be stop hanging around highly dangerous train sidings, particularly if you are an elderly singleton with your pet.

So let me propose some novel but more real world driving scenarios.

You are travelling in lane one at the legal speed limit on a multiple lane high speed road and arrive upon a joining junction. You notice two cars driving slowly up the slip road who will want to join your lane. They have not yet got up to the speed you are maintaining and you have plenty of room to pass by before they join the stream. You are also aware that no one is travelling along in the lane behind you but a fast moving [read speeding] vehicle is behind you coming up fast in the lane outside of you.

Suddenly, despite the adequately long slip road the first car joining the traffic makes a sudden and poorly executed swerve manoeuvre straight into your path right in front of you, seriously impeding your position and rendering you unable to brake in time. At the same time the speeding car in the outer lane is now blocking your escape route into any outer lane and the second car joining the traffic is blocking your escape route back onto the slip road.

You have no choice but to collide with one or another. Which car should you hit?

Take the opportunity to craft your thoughts as a comment. Take your time to consider all the implications. But if you are an autonomous vehicle you have 15 milliseconds.

Let’s try another. A little simpler this time and with no potential death.

An autonomous car is joining a motorway. A car, already on the motorway on the inside lane moves out to the centre lane to allow the autonomous car to join. They are now both on the motorway doing the legal top speed but travelling along next to each other. Should the autonomous car slow to allow the car already on the motorway to move back to lane one? And if it did and the other car did not move back to lane one what action should be taken by the autonomous one?

Again please feel free to comment.

A third scenario. Two autonomous cars, each equipped with a v2v system, approach a roundabout to arrive at the same time. Normal yielding rules apply on roundabouts but what if the one who has to yield has to wait a long time because the other has a long train of vehicles behind them? Logic may dictate via the v2v system to slow the approaching car with priority to allow all to progress the most efficiently. Or should the car with priority consider the stream of vehicles behind, who all technically have priority over the other.

Remember to consider all general occupants and the environmental impacts of your choices.

Now, add in a priority level. If one were an emergency vehicle or even if an emergency vehicle was in the train of following ones surely they would command full priority, no matter how much any other vehicles are impeded.

So, with priority level a consideration could the collective computers start addressing occupant needs? Is one occupant late for work? Is one just shopping [you can tell from my biased terminology that I am probably male. I am]? Do more occupants increase an individual vehicles' priority? Or even, has one driver had the benefit of more priority decisions this month?

And will autonomous vehicles make overtaking decisions based on all this? Deliberately slowing or stopping cars to allow others to proceed.

If all this is so, I think I’m registering my occupation as a Heart Surgeon and then filling my mobile phone’s calendar with fictitious operation appointments.

And so far I haven’t really touched on the subject of goods vehicles. These classes are the most likely to be fitted with this autonomous technology at first. After all the big lorries tend to travel major routes and often visit the same tightly controlled distribution depots.

So let’s set a scenario involving a number of autonomous heavy goods vehicles, all in an effective convoy, possibly cruising along, slipstreaming each other inches apart in order to travel the most economically.

What happens when you are cruising along in lane 2 in your non-autonomous car passing this effective wall of trucks on the inside lane but you need to exit a slip road ahead? What could you do? Should legislation determine convoys have to leave a gap between every, say, 5 lorries? Or should legislation dictate that 'convoys' completely break apart on approaching junctions to prevent last minute exiteers* attempting to fight for the same limited space? Or will we need a different road engineered solution, such as 'convoys' being restricted to outer lanes? So will we eventually have new junctions that pass over the carriageway and join from the other side?

As you can see there are a number of issues that are currently going through the minds of the programmers and engineers who are active in the field of autonomous vehicle operation and the more scenarios like this that we can imagine the better the autonomy will become.

But that's all for now, although certainly more unique issues and scenarios are likely to be contemplated by me in the future.

Next up: Look out for Autonomous Driving - The Future

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Author: Vince Poynter
Version m5.265 26 Jun 2019
* Note: This is not a Brexit reference



Autonomous Vehicles - Part Two - A Transitional Period

Following on from my article yesterday wherein I introduced my interest in self driving autonomous vehicles this piece will look at my thoughts on the transitional period between full driver control and full autonomous control.

But before we proceed too far what is meant by an autonomous vehicle?

According to Wikipedia, which is the best source I can suggest if you wish to know more, automated driving systems were first trialled as early as the 1920s. However autonomous driving as we know it now with greater control by electronic means was worked on in the 1980s but it wasn't until the 2010s and the development of more powerful and cheaper computer systems that modern recognised autonomy tests were being carried out.

For information the most accepted standard of defining autonomous control is from SAE International, an automotive standardisation body, which defines levels of driving automation as follows:

Level 0 - Basic - Automated warnings and momentarily intervention but no sustained vehicle control
Level 1 - Hands on - The driver and the automated system share control. Examples include Cruise Control, Adaptive Course Control, Parking Assistance and Lane Keeping Assist. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time
Level 2 - Hands off - The automated system takes full control of the vehicle with the driver monitoring and regularly demonstrating this and fully ready to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly
Level 3 - Eyes off - The driver can safely turn their attention away from the automated driving but be prepared to intervene within some limited time
Level 4 - Mind off - As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety and could sleep or leave the driving seat. The vehicle must be able to safely abort the trip if the driver does not retake control
Level 5 - Steering wheel optional - No human intervention is required at all

There are problems transitioning between these various levels of autonomy, particularly from levels 2 and 3 and major car manufacturer Ford announced in February 2017 that they gave up attempting to develop a level 3 stage opting for working on the safer level 4.

Well, that's the vital but soulless bit out of the way so I can now concentrate on my own related thoughts.

This may surprise some but we already have a great deal of autonomy in our cars, in fact every driver who has ever driven has experienced some form of autonomy because some aspects actually go back to the earliest days of motorised transport.

A photograph of a Benz Patent-Motorwagen taken indoors at a Motor Exhibition
The Benz Patent-Motorwagen, the very first automobile with some partial automation arguably making it technically the first level 1 autonomous vehicle

For example the very first motor car, the Benz Patent-Motorwagen required a considerable amount of driver input control. Speed, braking and steering were all completely operated by the person in the driver's seat. However some of the mechanical operation had been automated, for instance the trembler-coil ignition system. This was technically an automated device to avoid the driver having to manually open and close an ignition switch for each stroke of the engine.

If you feel that I am stretching a definition of autonomy then where do you put your line? On the subject of ignition again is it an autonomous function for a car to adjust advance and retard on a car without electronic ignition? Cars used to have advance and retard for their ignition to be manually selected by the driver dependant on the incline and thus load on the engine. Now it's the car that works all this out and only a retard would dismiss this advance. This function used to be manually operated and is now an automated function, with a great deal further development in the electronic ignition systems of modern vehicles.

Perhaps your 'line' is drawn at automated gearboxes. These are fairly usual nowadays particularly as manufacturers have improved the efficiency of auto gearboxes. I ask, why choose the manual option if not for cost? Nowadays I'd much rather drive virtually any auto than a fiddly manual because I just can't be bothered with all that awkward left leg clutch balancing stuff, particularly in our congested, traffic jammed streets. And if I really want to drop down a gear for added oomph, or preselect a cog for better downhill control I can always flip the flappy paddle.

Now gearboxes have gone beyond just selecting gears based on engine pre-selected power [revs] and speed. The Volkswagon Group DSG type gearboxes are designed to pre-select gears based on assumed future driver requirement and Rolls-Royce provide a gearbox in their latest Phantom VIII model which means it can preselect a gear based on GPS receiver and terrain information drawn from a map system.

And even if you don't accept these gearbox functions as autonomous features then surely many will have driven a car with cruise control fitted, which is a defined level 1 stage of autonomy. And some may even have had a go at successfully operating it.

I personally have experience of driving vehicles to at least level 2 autonomy which are now often fitted with technology to level 3 but restricted in use due to legislation. This level is not uncommon on modern vehicles with adaptive cruise control, lane keeping assist, automated lane changing and automatic braking. Although I accept at present these systems are often unreliable in some circumstances, such as when the road lines fade away or within the confines of supermarket car parks.

I have no experience of driving to level 4 known as 'Mind Off', but I reckon many have. Usually just before they crash!

So, as you can see we are already accepting the partial automation of our driving. The transitional period is already here with us.

So how will we actually ‘drive’ a true self-driving car? What will be the process?

I have already suggested that operating a level 5 autonomous car would be so simple that a future driving test would be almost completely pointless. However, we would need to show some control, after all the car would need to be summoned, opened and told where to go so manufacturers should make these basic steps as simple as possible to enable maximise occupancy use, for occupants such as the old, infirm, children or dogs that wish to go walkies while their owner watches the snooker on TV.

However when in the interior space it won’t be a free-for-all, at least not for now. You will not be able to meander around a vehicle making tea and dancing to Reggae music. The laws of physics still apply so when the vehicle accelerates, brakes and corners you need to be securely strapped in to avoid spilling that tea or turning your Jamaican moves into an impromptu break dance. Whether we get to the stage where accidents are so rare and driving so smooth that full freedom of movement will be allowed in the vehicle is yet to be proved.

So what are the level 5 control systems likely to include? A reasonable guess is that within cities the vehicle may not be where you are when you first summon it. There is a high likelihood of car sharing in the future and possibly the common use of tightly packed, remote storage. If cars can operate autonomously why would they need to remain outside your property getting in the way of the rest of your life? They are more likely to drive themselves off to a charging point or park in a remote car park, possibly automatically stacked several cars high or at least packed in nose to tail with no room between them to open doors. For this reason to get in your car you will first need to summon it and this will in all probability be an application on your mobile device. By then we would have to be accustomed to summoning a ride in good time and if it was a genuine emergency the system will just divert a closer 'common use' vehicle.

Just before the vehicle arrives it will probably be sending out a message for you to let you be aware of when it will get there and once at your location will be linked to your mobile device so that it is open as soon as you are ready. A quick, bluetooth style, electronic 'handshake' between you and the vehicle and it will be ready for instructions on where to go next.

Of course it won't move off until all occupants are secured into a seat, so no racing starts to beat your neighbour to the end of the Close. The seats will then probably be able to determine who is sat there and make suitable adjustments that the occupant has used before, whether it be facing ahead, in a face to face group gathering or prone for a sleepy ride.

One person will then probably state a destination requirement, such as "Hey car, take us to The Dog & Duck, via Barry's place." This will prompt the car to respond such as "You wish to go to Kentucky to buy some milk, please confirm." Or at least it will do if voice command doesn't get any better. But in any case the vehicle will have a tablet device slotted in somewhere so that more precise directions can be commanded.

But where can these vehicles operate in this transitional period?

At first driverless vehicles will be at level 3, with the 'I'm busy, I can't get to the controls at the moment' mode not yet an option. The driver will still be sat behind a steering wheel and actually using it in most cases. The first autonomy will likely be allowed on main roads in good conditions in the beginning with driver control on local streets. This could happen now as many makes of cars already have the technology fitted to do this but are restricted only by local laws. This may mean the learning of new motorway and A-road signs permitting such autonomy.

A mock up of a potential plate to be attached to the rear of a vehicle. In white with a red and white chevron border and the word Warning at the top. In the centre a large AV above the words Autonomous Vehicle. A graphic showing the gap between a rear and front of a vehicle shows brackets indicating a radio connection between the cars and a traffic light, interupted by an amber or green lamp. Below words explain Autonomous Operation When Lights Show and an indication that Amber means Prepared and Green means Operational
A suggestion for an illuminated plate to be attached to the rear of a vehicle to indicate to following vehicles that autonomous operations are in use

I foresee from this an interim period when autonomous vehicles have to display some sort of external evidence of potential auto control, probably backed up by an electronic 'black box' of trickery to meet certain criteria. Could there eventually be lanes designated only for autonomous cars, the outer lanes, geofenced to prevent access until you select autonomous mode? You might try to join in but the system just won’t let you. But when you can join in you could be cruising with cars travelling along at near to 200mph.

So does this mean that wise purchasers should be ticking these level 2/3 autonomous options on their vehicle builds now? Note to self when ordering that car, choose adaptive cruise control, lane departure and speed limit recognition camera option on the next build. It’s only another £4k after all. And when LIDAR becomes available I’m sure this will be just as, ahem, competitively priced.

This will all have to be developed in conjunction with the latest 5G mobile networking systems. This new high speed, high capacity internet will be needed to do the physical geofencing and authorisation along with the various car to car [v2v] and car to surroundings [v2b - b for base] communications needed for safe use of packed roads and high speeds.

In time it will be these same main roads where eventually all lanes introduce compulsory autonomous operation and older ill equipped vehicles will be barred.

And you can be certain that at all these stages governments and authorities will meet resistance from some, so expect a considerable amount of discussion and opinions. Mainly by me.

All this as we head towards full level 4 and 5 autonomy. But as I am considering the transitional period proceeding this then what else can we expect? And in particular what about the transition of our current cars.

At present the driverless mule cars being developed by manufacturers, the big tech giants and tech start ups resemble our current vehicles but splattered with an ugly array of cameras, radars, LIDAR, other sensors and devices all over them. In time this technology will be miniaturised and so seamlessly integrated into our current saloon, estate, SUV and lorry shapes.

It is also reasonable to assume that the developers of this technology will also want to sell it as aftermarket accessories to vehicles that don’t sport such stuff at present.

But this may not be the only offering because I predict the self driving robot. I discussed this in my comedy piece in February this year.

I foresee the introduction of approximately human sized self driving robots with the ability and technology to lock onto the necessary 5G systems and other relevant networks, connect to our cars using their inbuilt OBD socket then accurately survey and assess their surroundings. These robots would be able to actually clamber into our current cars and quickly communicate with the new tranche of driverless vehicles around them. Within they would have powerful computers and externally cameras, sensors and multiple ‘limbs’ to operate all the various functions of our current vehicles wherever the switches, seats, foot pedals, handbrakes, dials and controls are fitted. They may even be able to get out to change a wheel, check the tyres and even set the clock to British Summer Time as well. So clearly better than us.

I predict these robots will come before stage 6 autonomous cars are universally widespread, with licenses to roam wherever other autonomous vehicles may go.

Mind you there should always be a need to retain our own manual driving skills. I don't foresee most cars without any antiquated steering, speed or braking controls, even if they are usually tucked away out of sight. We'll need these to go where the maps don't map, such as into the wilderness, through temporary road diversions or into the depths of Morrisons' car parks.

And some specialists will still be needed to drive these auto-cars when things go wrong. I'm assuming the car will work out itself when to drive off to the garage for an oil service or get a flat tyre sorted but someone will have to pick up the ones that have faults reading something like error 404 bad sector. So don't put that Highway Code in the bin just yet.

Next up: Look out for Autonomous Driving - Issues and Scenarios

Related Links

Author: Vince Poynter
Version m5.264 25 Jun 2019
Wikipedia Autonomous Driving Information Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car\
The photograph is of a Benz Patent-Motorwagen and was taken by the author at the Beaulieu Motor Museum, Hampshire on 10 Nov 13
The Autonomous Vehicle Plate was designed and drawn by the author. It was created by adding the text into a Keynote slide, then printing and hand drawing the lines and graphics
My short stand up routine about driverless cars was performed on 20 Feb 2019 and can be found on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7g5UuzeIm-M or by using the blue button link above